Thursday, October 31, 2019

Portrait of 18C American Woman

1769 John Singleton Copley 1738-1815 Mrs. James Smith Elizabeth Murray MFA (2)

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

1800 City of Philadelphia by English artist William Russell Birch 1755 - 1834


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) The City and Port of Philadelphia on the River Delaware. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Arch Street Ferry, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Arch Street and the Second Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) New Lutheran Church on Fourth Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Old Lutheran Church in Fifth Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) South East Corner of Third and Market Streets, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) High Street, with the First Presbyterian Church. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) High Street Market, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) High Street Market form the Country Marketplace, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) High Street from the Country Marketplace, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) High Street from North Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) The House intended for the President of the United States. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) An Unfinished House in Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Second Street North from Market Street and Christ Church, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) New Market in South Second Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Bank of the United States with a View of Third Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Bank of the United States on Third Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Third Street from Spruce Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


 William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Congress Hall and New Theater on Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Library and Surgeons Hall from Fifth Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) State House with a View of Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Back of the State House, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) State-House Garden, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Goal in Walnut Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Alms House in Spruce Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Pennsylvania Hospital, in Pine Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Bank of Pennsylvania, South Second Street, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) The Water Works in Centre Square, Philadelphia. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


 William Russell Birch (English artist, 1755-1834) Preparation for WAR to defend Commerce. City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it appeared in the Year 1800


Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Portrait of 18C American Woman

1770 Cosmo Alexander (1724-1772) Portrait of a Jacobite Lady. myartprints.com Edinburgh, The Drambuie Collection

Monday, October 28, 2019

Thomas Jefferson, America's original foodie with the help of his slaves, both male & female..

How the Founding Father's love of local produce, French wine, and mac & cheese shaped culinary history

By Felisa Rogers July 2, 2011 Salon.com
John Trumbull (American painter, 1756-1843) Thomas Jefferson 1788

The table is set with an elegant fusion of Southern comfort food and fine French cuisine. The beef and lamb are grass-fed; the artisan smoked hams are from locally raised pigs. The produce is locally grown and, of course, organic. All this local bounty is enhanced by fine imports: Italian Parmesan, French wine, and extra virgin olive oil. No, you're not sitting down to eat with Michael Pollan; you're at the table of Thomas Jefferson, statesman and gourmand extraordinaire.

Despite his service as legislator, the governor of Virginia, minister to France, secretary of state, and president of the United States, Jefferson likely believed his famous statement: "The greatest service which can be rendered any country is to add a useful plant to its culture." In honor of the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, we explore the author's lesser-known contribution to American culture: his influence on the country's culinary tradition.

In an era when red meat and rum predominated, Jefferson directed his prodigious intelligence toward his health. Dinner with Jefferson sounds like dinner with Pollan because much of Pollan's manifesto "In Defense of Food" could be taken directly from the Jefferson playbook: exercise daily, use high-quality olive oil, don't overcook vegetables, practice moderation with complex carbohydrates and red meat, drink wine in moderation, eat plenty of fresh local organic vegetables.

Although organic was kind of a given in Jefferson's world, local was not. Some large Southern plantations were so devoted to cash crops like cotton and tobacco that they imported the bulk of their food. This was certainly not the case at Jefferson's Virginia plantation, Monticello.

A grass path shaded by cherry trees led to Jefferson's vast gardens, where 330 varieties of vegetables and herbs flourished in a patchwork of red earth and flowering bounty. The aisles glowed in jewel tones: midnight eggplants, skeins of scarlet runner beans, the fire hues of Mexican chiles, the flash of nasturtiums, and the new green of broccoli and cabbage. He grew squashes and broccoli imported from Italy, 15 types of English peas, French artichokes, Native American lima beans and African okra. In the orchards below, Indian corn gleaned from the Lewis and Clark expedition would grow amid 170 varieties of fruiting trees and shrubs, including almond, peach and pomegranate. On May 6, 1795, Jefferson noted in his journal, "The first lettuce comes to the table." Jefferson delighted in growing greens, and a typical Jeffersonian salad sounds like something you might get at Chez Panisse. As Peter Hatch, director of the Monticello gardens and grounds, writes: "Monticello salads probably included a mixed bouquet of greens, including spinach and endive for winter use, orach, corn salad or mache, pepper grass, French sorrel, cress, and sprouts." Jefferson's cousin Mary Randolph describes a salad dressing of oil, tarragon vinegar, hard-boiled egg yolks, mustard, sugar and salt. Jefferson, who was obsessed with salad oil, grew sesame for that purpose.

Just as the modern foodie movement arises from great wealth, so Jefferson's culinary legacy is not the work of a poor man. Although Jefferson guided the procurement and preparation of food, he himself did not cook. Slaves carved Jefferson's two-acre garden from a Virginia mountaintop; slaves picked the almonds and apricots in Jefferson's orchards; slaves created the culinary masterpieces for which Jefferson was famous.

In "Notes on the State of Virginia," Jefferson shares his suspicion that blacks "are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind." The statement seems hypocritical coming from a man who entrusted his most beloved enterprises to the enslaved: As Jefferson's chef in Paris and then at Monticello, James Hemings prepared sumptuous French creations for elite guests. At Monticello, an enslaved man called Great George oversaw 50 men and was responsible for growing tobacco, one of the plantation's most important cash crops. Peter Hemings, who Jefferson admitted was of "great intelligence and diligence, both of which are necessary," supervised the Monticello brew house. During Jefferson's retirement years his kitchen was ruled by Edith Fossett. Daniel Webster was probably thinking of Fossett's cooking when he described meals from Jefferson's kitchen as "in half Virginian, half French style, in good taste and abundance."

Whatever Jefferson's faults, it's hard not to appreciate his boundless curiosity. Jefferson treated all his travels as research expeditions to investigate culinary matters, and his letters are peppered with references to food and farming. After a tour of the Mediterranean, he wrote a glowing treatise on the olive tree, which he saw as a cheap source of fat and nutrients for the poor of the American South: "I see this tree supporting thousands in among the Alps where there is not soil enough to make bread for a single family." Noting that a touch of olive oil rendered vegetables "a proper and codortable nourishment," Jefferson imagined improving the diet of his field workers by planting an olive tree for every slave.

On the same trip, Jefferson tried his hand at smuggling: He discovered that the superiority of Italian rice stemmed from the strain, which was closely guarded. "They informed me that its exportation in the husk was prohibited," Jefferson wrote, "so I could only bring off as much as my coat & surtout pockets would hold." Worried that his pocketful of purloined rice would be insufficient to successfully cultivate the strain, Jefferson arranged for a muleteer to "run a couple of sacks across the Appenines to Genoa."

During Jefferson's years in Paris as minister of France (1784-1789), his idea of perfect cuisine took shape. Though he delighted in French and Italian cheeses and collected recipes and fine ingredients such as mustard, vinegar, raisins and anchovies, he longed to share America's culinary bounty with his European friends: He grew Indian corn in his Paris garden and ordered hams to be sent from Virginia. Much to Jefferson's disappointment, the hams were lost in transit, but perhaps he was able to drown or at least mitigate his sorrows with fine French and Italian wines: When he returned from Paris to the United States, his luggage contained no fewer than 680 bottles.

In typical fashion, Jefferson managed to make these expensive tastes appear virtuous: By swearing off the British colonial habit of drinking port and Madiera in favor of lighter French and Italian wine, he breaking the yoke of English tradition. "The taste of this country [was] artificially created by our long restraint under the English government to the strong wines of Portugal and Spain," he stated, somehow implying that his enormous collection of French and Italian wine was only an appropriate accessory to democracy.

In a similar vein, he argued another virtue of French wines: lower alcohol content than port. Jefferson was "anxious to introduce here these fine wines in place of the Alcoholic wines of Spain and Portugal." He had high hopes that Americans would follow his righteous example and take to lighter wines. "The delicacy and innocence of these wines will change the habit from the coarse and inebriating kinds hitherto only known here," he wrote. "It is much to the comfort and temperance of society to encourage them."

Jefferson's blessed his favorite wines with his considerable powers of description. Of Nebbiolo he said: "about as sweet as the silky Madeira, as astringent on the palate as Bordeaux, and as brisk as Champagne. It is a pleasing wine." His writing also conveys his fondness for the ritual of imbibing: He describes a supply of Termo set aside to ripen as "a provision for my future comfort." On his attachment to a light sherry he comments, "If I should fail in the means of getting it, it will be a privation which I shall feel sensibly once a day." But Jefferson was ask quick to point out that he drank only in moderation: "My measure is a perfectly sober one of three or four glasses at dinner, and not a drop at any other time." As secretary of state to George Washington, Jefferson personally ordered the president's champagnes, and in his letters to his friends James Madison and James Monroe, Jefferson imparts political advice and vintner recommendations with equal gravity.

Naturally, Jefferson couldn't forget the lowly masses; in addition to educating his peers, Jefferson lobbied to lower tariffs on inexpensive wines. He hoped that cheap wine would divert the American public from their considerable (and in Jefferson's view harmful) whisky habit. Although Jefferson was unsuccessful in his endless attempts to cultivate European wine grapes, he would have his wish in one regard: Americans today happily do their part for democracy by drinking French and Italian wine.

When Jefferson was elected president in 1800, he had the perfect opportunity to shape America's culinary habits. He set such a good table that one political rival accused him of using food to curry favor, but he also used his tenure as president to relax the standards of etiquette at the White House. Whether through ambition, laziness or a genuine dislike of pomp and ceremony, Jefferson affected a "man of the people" persona and eliminated many of the elaborate rituals of the Washington and Adams years. Jefferson sometimes greeted guests in his slippers, and he nixed immense state dinners in favor of "casual" dinner parties for between two and 12 guests, served at an oval table to promote comfortable conversation. Guests were seated randomly, without regard to rank.

Jefferson's social nonchalance was not echoed in his menu: In 1801 the president spent $3,000 on wine and $6,500 on groceries. (For comparison, Meriwether Lewis' salary for the entire year was $500.) Jefferson curated his own White House wine cellar, and he employed a French steward and a French chef. One guest noted that "Jefferson is accused of being slovenly in his dress and to be sure he is not very particular in that respect, but however he may neglect his person, he takes good care of his table. No man in America keeps a better."

Despite his pretensions to simplicity and his own propensity for vegetables, Jefferson was not completely immune to the demands of office and the customs of the time. Sen. Cutler of Massachusetts described being served a meal that included seven varieties of meat: round of beef, turkey, mutton, ham, loin of veal, cutlets of mutton or veal, and fried beef. However, even when Jefferson was standing on tradition, he could never resist adding his own touches -- ice cream, wine jelly, or occasionally even something really exotic: mac and cheese.

Although Jefferson was not the first American to serve ice cream or macaroni and cheese, he certainly helped popularize both dishes: The first American ice cream recipe is in Jefferson's handwriting, and at the time of Jefferson's presidency macaroni and cheese was so unusual that the aforementioned Cutler did not recognize the dish and thought that he was being served a crust filled with shallots. He was less than thrilled.

In exploring Jefferson's contributions to American cuisine we can't forget the Louisiana Purchase and the subsequent Lewis and Clark expedition. In 1803, when President Jefferson decided to temporarily ignore his strict interpretation of the constitution in order to buy the Louisiana territory from Napoleon and double the country's size, he greatly expanded the pantheon of American cuisine. Therefore, Jefferson's culinary legacy technically includes Kansas City barbecue, the New Orleans po' boy and any future dish that evolves in the gigantic territory he purchased for a song in 1803.

More specifically, Jefferson personally experimented with the seeds that Lewis and Clark gathered during the first government-sanctioned exploration of the territory. Though the ostensible purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to find a river pathway to the Pacific, Jefferson seemed more excited by the prospect of botanic discovery. He eagerly awaited each shipment of specimens and sowed the Monticello gardens with pine nuts from Missouri, snowberry from the Colombia River basin, honeysuckle, sweet-scented currants and Pawnee corn.

Years later, Peter Hemings and Jefferson would figure out how to brew an excellent beer from malted Indian corn. Jefferson would write of the experiment: "We tried it here the last fall with perfect success, and I shall use it principally hereafter." The incident illustrates much about Jefferson's culinary legacy: his reliance on skilled slaves, his enthusiasm for native plants, his dedication to quality, his boundless curiosity, and his desire to have a hand in the production of his sustenance.

Jefferson correctly saw food as a path to good conversation, good health and good times. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness indeed.

See Salon.com.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Portrait of 18C American Woman

1769 John Singleton Copley 1738-1815 Mrs Jeremiah Lee Martha Swett Wadsworth Athan

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Benjamin Franklin publishes The Drinker's Dictionary 1737



The Drinker’s Dictionary
by Benjamin Franklin Posted on January 13, 1737 The Pennsylvania Gazette  There was a similar list published in the New England Weekly Journal of July 6, 1736.

Nothing more like a Fool than a drunken Man.  Poor Richard.

 A
 He is Addled,
 He’s casting up his Accounts,
 He’s Afflicted,
 He’s in his Airs.

1658 Belgium Tavern Scene by David Teniers the Younger (Flemish artist, 1610–1690)

B
 He’s Biggy,
 Bewitch’d,
 Block and Block,
 Boozy,
 Bowz’d,
 Been at Barbadoes,
 Piss’d in the Brook,
 Drunk as a Wheel-Barrow,
 Burdock’d,
 Buskey,
 Buzzey,
 Has Stole a Manchet out of the Brewer’s Basket,
 His Head is full of Bees,
 Has been in the Bibbing Plot,
 Has drank more than he has bled,
 He’s Bungey,
 As Drunk as a Beggar,
 He sees the Bears,
 He’s kiss’d black Betty,
 He’s had a Thump over the Head with Sampson’s Jawbone,
 He’s Bridgey.

England 1730 A Club of Gentlemen by Joseph Highmore (English painter, 1692-1780)  Note:
Since 1633, a round of drinks has meant “a quantity of liquor served to a company at one time;” probably because it was customary for gentlemen to drink at these round tables in a circle facing one another.

C
 He’s Cat,
 Cagrin’d,
 Capable,
 Cramp’d,
 Cherubimical,
 Cherry Merry,
 Wamble Crop’d,
 Crack’d,
 Concern’d,
 Half Way to Concord,
 Has taken a Chirriping-Glass,
 Got Corns in his Head,
 A Cup to much,
 Coguy,
 Copey,
 He’s heat his Copper,
 He’s Crocus,
 Catch’d,
 He cuts his Capers,
 He’s been in the Cellar,
 He’s in his Cups,
 Non Compos,
 Cock’d,
 Curv’d,
 Cut,
 Chipper,
 Chickery,
 Loaded his Cart,
 He’s been too free with the Creature,
 Sir Richard has taken off his Considering Cap,
 He’s Chap-fallen,

England 1730-35 The Brothers Clarke with Other Gentlemen Taking Wine by Gawen Hamilton (British painter, c 1698-1737)

D
 He’s Disguiz’d,
 He’s got a Dish,
 Kill’d his Dog,
 Took his Drops,
 It is a Dark Day with him,
 He’s a Dead Man,
 Has Dipp’d his Bill,
 He’s Dagg’d,
 He’s seen the Devil,

E
He’s Prince Eugene,
Enter’d,
Wet both Eyes,
Cock Ey’d,
Got the Pole Evil,
Got a brass Eye,
Made an Example,
He’s Eat a Toad & half for Breakfast.
In his Element,

England 1730-50 Joseph Highmore (English painter, 1692-1780) Figures in a Tavern or Coffeehouse

F
 He’s Fishey,
 Fox’d,
 Fuddled,
 Sore Footed,
 Frozen,
 Well in for’t,
 Owes no Man a Farthing,
 Fears no Man,
 Crump Footed,
 Been to France,
 Flush’d,
 Froze his Mouth,
 Fetter’d,
 Been to a Funeral,
 His Flag is out,
 Fuzl’d,
 Spoke with his Friend,
 Been at an Indian Feast.

England 1732 A Midnight Modern Conversation” by William Hogarth (British painter, 1697-1764)

G
 He’s Glad,
 Groatable,
 Gold-headed,
 Glaiz’d,
 Generous,
 Booz’d the Gage,
 As Dizzy as a Goose,
 Been before George,
 Got the Gout,
 Had a Kick in the Guts,
 Been with Sir John Goa,
 Been at Geneva,
 Globular,
 Got the Glanders.

H
Half and Half,
Hardy,
Top Heavy,
Got by the Head,
Hiddey,
Got on his little Hat,
Hammerish,
Loose in the Hilts,
Knows not the way Home,
Got the Hornson,
Haunted with Evil Spirits,
Has Taken Hippocrates grand Elixir,

France 1735 Luncheon Party in the Park by Nicolas Lancret (French artist, 1690-1743)

I - J
He’s Intoxicated,
Jolly,
Jagg’d,
Jambled,
Going to Jerusalem,
Jocular,
Been to Jerico,
Juicy.

K
He’s a King,
Clips the King’s English,
Seen the French King,
The King is his Cousin,
Got Kib’d Heels,
Knapt,
Het his Kettle.

England 1735-45 Joseph Highmore (English painter, 1692-1780) Mr Oldham and his Guests

L
He’s in Liquor,
Lordly,
He makes Indentures with his Leggs,
Well to Live,
Light,
Lappy,
Limber,

M
He sees two Moons,
Merry,
Middling,
Moon-Ey’d,
Muddled,
Seen a Flock of Moons,
Maudlin,
Mountous,
Muddy,
Rais’d his Monuments,
Mellow,

Belgium 1750s A Merry Party” by Jan Jozef Horemans the Younger (Flemish artist, 1714 - 1790)

N
He’s eat the Cocoa Nut,
Nimptopsical,
Got the Night Mare,

O
He’s Oil’d,
Eat Opium,
Smelt of an Onion,
Oxycrocium,
Overset,

 American 1752-58 Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam” by John Greenwood (American artist, 1727 - 1792)

P
He drank till he gave up his Half-Penny,
Pidgeon Ey’d,
Pungey,
Priddy,
As good conditioned as a Puppy,
Has scalt his Head Pan,
Been among the Philistines,
In his Prosperity,
He’s been among the Philippians,
He’s contending with Pharaoh,
Wasted his Paunch,
He’s Polite,
Eat a Pudding Bagg,

Q
He’s Quarrelsome,

England 1760  A Punch Party by Thomas Patch (English artist, 1725-1782) Dated 1760

R
He’s Rocky,
Raddled,
Rich,
Religious,
Lost his Rudder,
Ragged,
Rais’d,
Been too free with Sir Richard,
Like a Rat in Trouble.

America 1760-70 Peter Manigault and His Friends by George Roupell, Charleston, South Carolina

S
He’s Stitch’d,
Seafaring,
In the Sudds,
Strong,
Been in the Sun,
As Drunk as David’s Sow,
Swampt,
His Skin is full,
He’s Steady,
He’s Stiff,
He’s burnt his Shoulder,
He’s got his Top Gallant Sails out,
Seen the yellow Star,
As Stiff as a Ring-bolt,
Half Seas over,
His Shoe pinches him,
Staggerish,
It is Star-light with him,
He carries too much Sail,
Stew’d
Stubb’d,
Soak’d,
Soft,
Been too free with Sir John Strawberry,
He’s right before the Wind with all his Studding Sails out,
Has Sold his Senses.

England 1768 A Caricature Group by John Hamilton Mortimer (British painter, 1740-1779)

T
 He’s Top’d,
 Tongue-ty’d,
 Tann’d,
 Tipium Grove,
 Double Tongu’d,
 Topsy Turvey,
 Tipsey,
 Has Swallow’d a Tavern Token,
 He’s Thaw’d,
 He’s in a Trance,
 He’s Trammel’d,

V
 He makes Virginia Fence,
 Valiant,
 Got the Indian Vapours,

England 1785 A Tavern Scene by unknown British artist

W
 The Malt is above the Water,
 He’s Wise,
 He’s Wet,
 He’s been to the Salt Water,
 He’s Water-soaken,
 He’s very Weary,
 Out of the Way.

The Phrases in this Dictionary are not (like most of our Terms of Art) borrow’d from Foreign Languages, neither are they collected from the Writings of the Learned in our own, but gather’d wholly from the modern Tavern-Conversation of Tiplers. 
The Pennsylvania Gazette, January 13, 1736/7

Friday, October 25, 2019

Thursday, October 24, 2019

1733 Woman's Tale - The Tea Table

.
This story about the miraculous virtues of tea was printed in the Rhode Island Gazette. Tea was reportedly introduced into the British American colonies in 1714. This is the 1758 John Potter Overmantle at the Newport Historical Society in that state. John Potter and his family are serving tea with a young male house slave attending them.

This hilarious gentle woman's tale from the 1733 Pennslyvania newspaper has it all. It tells of the 18th century woman having to give all her money to her husband when they marry, but holding a little back, just in case. He drinks & gambles & pays little attention to his business. She uses tea to lure him back & build a happy home. She is a one woman consumer revolution!

Pennsylvania Gazette May 31, 1733 (From the Rhode Island Gazette)

THE TEA TABLESIR, I am an honest Tradesman's only Daughter, and some Years ago marry'd a Tradesman of his Town. You will believe I lov'd him, when I inform you, that he had nothing to depend on But his Trade, and I was Owner of an Estate, left to me by my Father, richly worth, at that Time of Day, near a Thousand Pounds, part of which consisted of a good House well furnish'd.

My Husband was before Marriage something addicted to Drinking & Gaming, which I did not very well like, but had the Vanity to think I could cure him by good Management of his Temper, which I thought I pretty well knew.

The usual Diversions of a Wedding being over, we did well for about six Months. My Husband was careful and diligent: His Affairs in the Shop went on smoothly and prosperously, and my Kitchen (tho' I say it) was as well manag'd as any in our Town.

But, to my Grief, I afterwards found, that my Husband renew'd his Acquaintance with his old Companions, and needed no great In
vitation to a Tavern.

His Shop was left often to the Care (or rather Carelessness) of his Apprentices, and at some Times when his Presence was most wanted in it. They spoilt as much Work as they did, when they happen'd not to stand still for want of Work laid out for them.

His Customers, on this Account, had almost all left him, and yet
I was urg'd, Time after Time, to call in my Money at Interest to buy Stuff, as he said. I call'd all in that he knew was out, but reserv'd the rest for my own Support; apprehending that this way of buying Stuff would bring me to Beggary.

After most of the Money call'd in was spent upon Stuff, my best Household Goods were sold to buy Stuff too; and it came to that Pass at last we could scarcely get any thing to stuff our Bellys, or cloath our Backs.

As it is not the Business of a Woman to command, I began, in this Extremity, to project Relief. I knew he lov'd Gaming, and to please him this Way, I bought a Wheel of Fortune, a Snake Board, a Back Gammon Table, a Set of Nine Pins, and had a good Alley made in the Garden. If I could have afforded it, I would have purchas'd a Shuffle Board and Billiard Table; for I had two large Rooms stripp'd of all their Furniture to buy St
uff, where they might have been very conveniently plac'd.

However, I took a Game now and then with my Husband, either on the Wheel of Fortune, at Cards, or some other Game I had Materials for; which had this good Effect, that it kept him something more at home than formerly.

Yet strong Liquor he must have, and for this he went to the Taverns. To cure him effectually of rambling abroad, I concluded to buy a Stock of Liquors which pleas'd him best, and keep them in the House for him.


1752-58 Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam” by John Greenwood (American artist, 1727 - 1792)

But happily for me, an old Woman to whom I communicated my Design, inform'd me, that she heard Madam Such a One say, Tea was as spiricus, and more wholesome than any strong Drink, be it Punch, be it Wine, be it Cyder, be it Brandy, be it Rum, be it what it will.

This Information of my Neighbour alter'd my Resolution, and I bought a Tea Table, with its Appurtenances of Earthen, Bath Metal, and Nine Canisters of Tea. I confess my covetous Humour and Unaquaintance with Tea had like to have ruin'd me: For the Cups were so small, and the Tea so weak my Husband said it was drinking Water by Drops.

I therefore bought a large home made Tea Table, and a Set of Earthen Plates and Punch Bowls; one of which Bowls (by the Direction of a Gentlewoman in the Neighbourhood) I fill'd with good strong Te
a for my Husband, who then thought it was something like Drinking.

By Degrees his Desire of strong Liquor wholly left him, and he became an Admirer of Tea; but I found the Love of it did not grow upon him so fast as to oblige me to buy larger Bowls. In a Months Time he was contented with the small Tea Table and Cups and Saucers.

By his Consent I sold the Punch Bowls to a Tavern Keeper, and (to my great Comfort) he has not seen them since. His Inclination to Gaming abating, I burnt my Nine Pins, Frame and all, and dispos'd of all the rest of my Gaming Tools, except the Back Gammon Table, on which we sometimes take a Game in an Evening for a Cup of Tea in the Morning.

This Way of Living has made so great an Alteration in my Husband, that he does not require the tenth Part of the Stuff he us'd to do, and yet does more Work, gets more Money, and is in good Credit with his Neighbours.

The Money and Time he would have spent in Drinking and Gaming, had he not left them off, has, within these two Years past, by my Reckoning, refurnish'
d my two great Rooms, supply'd the Tea Table, and purchas'd two good Milch Cows.

So that besides our having always Milk enough and to spare, for the Family, (and other Wholesome Provisions) I am never at a loss for Cream and Butter with my Tea; and in short, as the saying is, we live together as happy as the Days are long.

I am Sir, Yours, Patience Teacraft.