Monday, July 2, 2018

Hemp (Cannabis) "well known to every good housewife in the country" 17-18C British America

Cannabis generalis E.H.L.Krause 1796 Figure 37 from Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen

Extant Chinese pottery bearing impressions from hemp rope suggest its systematic, persistent cultivation 5-10,000 years ago due to hemp's many uses: thread, heavy woven cords, cloth, paper, food & intoxication.  Ancient herbals refer to people partaking in ritualistic & recreational intoxication from hemp at least 2,600 years ago.  As the books below indicate, people also ingested hemp as a painkiller & to treat the symptoms of many ailments.  Beside sturdy fibers, cannabis has separate male & rather remarkable female organs on different plants, & the unfertilized flowers of hemp's female plants contain a resin for marijuana.  The resin can also be collected & formed into cakes known as hashish. Smoking or eating marijuana or hashish induces a hallucinogenic state.  From the books listed below, we know that the hallucinogenic properties were well known by the 18C in Britain & her American colonies.

Sir Walter Raleigh (c 1552-1618) became excited at the prospect of harvesting hemp in the American colonies as early as 1585, after Thomas Heriot (1560-1621) told him that he had seen a hemp-like plant growing wild in what was to become Virginia. Heriot's hemp, however, was probably "Indian Hemp" a plant which yields a fiber suitable for weaving, but one that is far inferior in strength to cannabis.  This indigenous species known to Native Americans was called Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum), but the cannabis most often cultivated in the colonies was an introduced species, Cannabis sativa. Though the hallucinogenic properties were well known by the 18C, there's no written evidence to suggest that colonial  Americans may have been getting high on hemp. Of course, many were just a little high most of the time anyway from the vast amount of alcohol consumed.  The extreme use of alcohol was often blamed on tainted water.

In 1611, formal orders to raise hemp were received in the Virginia colony. Speaking to a gathering at Jamestown, the new governor, Sir Thomas Dale (1588-1619) informed the colonists, that the king expected them to grow hemp. By 1616, colonist John Rolfe (1585-1622) boasted, that the inhabitants of Jamestown had raised hemp "none better in England or Holland."  But faced with a choice between raising tobacco & becoming rich or complying with the distant Crown's wishes that they grow hemp, the colonists planted tobacco in the Jamestown settlement.  To correct this, in 1619 the Virginia Company directed every colonist in Jamestown to "set 100 [hemp] plants & the governor to set 5,000," & it allotted 100 pounds to a gentleman named Gabriel Wisher to hire skilled hemp dressers from Sweden & Poland at 10 pounds, 10 shillings per man, if they would emigrate to the new colony.

The Virginia Assembly in 1632, ordered “that every planter as soone as he may, provide seede of flaxe & hempe & sowe the same.”  In 1662 the British Parliament offered sizable inducements to grow hemp down south. Virginia Governor William Berkeley (1605-1677) was empowered to offer each colonist 2 pounds of tobacco for every pound of hemp delivered to market. Similar bounties for hemp production were also offered in Maryland in 1671, 1682, 1688, & 1698.  In 1682, Virginia tried to encourage hemp production by making hemp legal tender for as much as one-fourth of a farmer's debts. Similar laws were enacted by Maryland in 1683 & by Pennsylvania in 1706.

Farther north, cannabis was among the 1st crops to be introduced into the cooler climate of the Massachusetts Colony. In 1629, residents of Salem, Mass., receive their first shipment of hemp seeds. Samuel Cornhill is assigned to cultivate an acre of cannabis, while Pilgrims individually grow hemp to make winter clothing. In 1634, William Wood’s Description of New England notes: “This land likewise affords hempe and flax, some naturally, and some planted by the English with rapes if they be well managed.” The General Court of Massachusetts was particularly interested in urging hemp production to make clothing. It was "desired & expected that all masters of families should see that their children & servants should bee industriously implied, so as the mornings & evenings & other seasons may not bee lost, as formerly they have beene, but that the honest & profitable custome of England may be practiced amongst us; so as all hands may be implied for the working of hemp & flaxe & other needful things for clothing, without abridging any such servants of their dewe times for foode & rest & other needful refreshings."  In 1637, at Hartford, Conn., the colony’s General Assembly orders all resident families to plant one teaspoonful of hemp seeds.  Despite the exhortations of the Massachusetts court, hemp production fell far short of expectations. The 1638 General Court of Massachusetts ordered colonists to grow and harvest “wild hemp” as instructed by local Native American tribes. The court “desired and expected that … all hands may be employed for the working of hemp and flaxe and other needful things.” The 1639, colonial authorities in Massachusetts following Connecticut’s lead, ordered each family to plant at least one teaspoonful of hemp seeds. In 1640, the General Assembly of Connecticut also urged its colonists to sow hemp "that we might in time have supply of linen cloth among ourselves." An early chronicle of Massachusetts, New England’s First Fruits, thanks Divine Providence for “prospering hempe and flax so well that it is frequently sowen, spun, and woven into linen cloth (and in short time may serve for cordage).”

Colonial Women make clothes from Hemp

During the 17C & early 18C, much hemp clothing covered the backs of settlers & their families & hemp towels were used to wipe their hands as women in the colonies transformed the raw hemp fibers from the farm fields into cloth & fine linen. After her husband brought her the broken hemp fiber, the farmer's wife placed it across the top of a "swingling" block, a strong wooden board 3 to 4 feet high mounted on a sturdy wooden frame. She & her daughters would now begin to pound the fibers as hard as they could with wooden paddles; until it was beaten free of woody particles.
The long fibers that survived this beating were then drawn through a hatchel, a wooden comb for removing remaining short fibers. Hatcheling was done by the women several times, each time with a comb with teeth set more closely together than the previous one.  After the final combing, the fine soft pliable threads, the women spun into cloth. The short fibers removed during the preliminary hatchelings were called tow, which the women made into heavy thread for burlap & cord.
Spinning involved twisting loose fibers together to make a single strand.  A woman at a spinning wheel pulled a few strands of hemp from a rod or spindle & twisted these onto a bobbin. The bobbin was then set revolving, as the woman began pressing down on a foot treadle. As the bobbin turned, it caused the thread to be wound. After she had produced a number of full bobbins, she wound the thread onto skeins on a hand-turned reel.  After "reeling," she bleached the yarn in order to give it color.  First, she submerged the yarn in running water. Then, the women covered it with piles of ashes & hot water, rewashed, pounded again, & washed once more.
Now it was ready for bleaching. To give the yarn a white color, the women soaked it in flaked lime & buttermilk. Walnut bark gave the yarn a brown tinge; oak & maple gave purple; hickory bark produced a yellowish color; sumac berries produced pinks & reds; blueberries gave blue.  Once dyed, the dried yarn was ready for weaving. Now the women would pass a horizontal or "weft" thread over & under alternating vertical or "warp" threads. A loom allowed the woman weaver to hook the weft thread over & behind warp threads faster than could possibly be done by hand.  In the 17C, colonial women did made most of the clothing their families wore from scratch; but by the turn of the 18C, few actually spun the yarn & fewer wove their own fabric. In the last quarter of the 18C, the spinning of thread & the making of cloth was the single most important industry in Britain. Imported woolen & linen fabrics from England usually could be purchased for less than it cost to make them in America,

The growth of the New England shipbuilding industry was creating yet another demand for hemp - rope.  Without rope, shipbuilders could not make rigging to hoist sails, & without sails, ships were useless. Although rigging could be made from a other raw materials, the preferred crop was hemp because of its strength & durability.  In 1635, the first ropewalk - a factory for making rope from hemp - was established in Salem.  Astute businessmen in Boston soon recognized the advantage of having a local ropemaker, so they invited experienced ropemaker John Harrison to sail to Boston from England & set up shop. Harrison arrived in 1642 .

Exasperated at the colonies' growing need for hemp & England's incessant demands, that the colonies send more hemp across the Atlantic, in Pennsylvania Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) railed at Parliament's ignoring the shortages of hemp in America: "Did ever any North American bring his hemp to England for this bounty. We have not yet enough for our own consumption. We began to make our own cordage. You want to suppress that manufacture, & would do it by getting the raw material from us. You want to be supplied with hemp for your manufactures, & Russia demands money."

In Virginia, Col. William Byrd II (1674-1744) called its cultivation “the Darling of all my Projects.” In the spring of 1729, Byrd sowed 90 bushels of hemp seed. That was enough for 36 acres or more. Most Tidewater planters grew a fraction of that, keeping much of their acreage in the more profitable (at that time) tobacco & other cash crops.  Robert Beverley ( c 1667-1722) of Virginia, predicted the plant “will be of the greatest consequence to us.”  Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) wrote that “an acre of the best ground” at his Poplar Forest estate be kept for to grow hemp.  He wrote that hemp “is abundantly productive & will grow forever on the same spot,” unlike tobacco, which depleted soil nutrients.  After the Revolution & during his presidency, George Washington wrote, in a note to his gardener at Mount Vernon in 1794, "Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, & sow it everywhere!” (The Writings of Washington, Volume 33, Page 270. Library of Congress).

Hemp became even important in the colonies as trade with the "mother country" cooled.  The Virginia Gazette in April 1767 printed front-page instructions for growing hemp. The colonists of Henrico County, Va., were among the chorus of voices who resolved in 1774, “that the raising of Sheep, Hemp, & Flax ought to be encouraged,” & “that to be clothed in Manufactures fabricated in the Colony ought to be considered as a Badge of Distinction & Respect, & true Patriotism.”

With the onset of fighting in 1775, Americans' need for hemp became urgent.  While hemp products were useful for clothing ground troops, 11 state naval fleets & the Continental Navy would be paralyzed without ropes made of hemp.  Most hemp in colonial & early America, was said to be used for clothing & naval purposes & much was imported.  During the first 6 months of 1770, the colonies imported over 400 tons of hemp from Great Britain.  After the Revolution, the New Republic imported 3,400 tons in 1800; & about 5,000 tons were imported each year between 1820 & 1840. Known domestic production in the 1800's was usually in the 5,000-10,000 ton range, except in the 1840s & 1850s when 30,000-plus tons of hemp were annually produced in the United States.

Women & Men use Hemp for medicinal purposes

Books Mentioning Cannabis

The earliest known reference to cannabis is in Assyrian tablets of the 7th BC.  In Western medicine, it appeared in the Herbal of Dioscorides of about 60 AD. The 16C saw a detailed interest in cannabis, with reports of it and its usages being sent back by many travelers to the East, and the number of possible uses listed in the herbals increased. In England, the Herbal of John Gerard (1597) recommended it as it "consumeth wind and drieth up seed [semen]," and quoted Dioscorides as recommending it for easing the pain of earache and for the treatment of jaundice. Nicholas Culpeper, in his Herbal (1653), gave the same indications for the use of cannabis seeds, and also recommended the decoction of the roots, as this "allayeth inflammations, easeth the pain of gout, tumours or knots of joints, pain of hips." 

12C The Physica by St. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
XI. HEMP 
“Hemp [hauff] is warm and grows where the air is neither very hot nor very cold, just as its nature is. Its seed is sound, and it is healthy for healthy people to eat it. It is openly gentle and useful in their stomach since it somewhat takes away the mucus. It is able to be digested easily; it diminishes the bad humors and makes the good humors strong. But nevertheless, whoever is weak in the head and has a vacant mind, if that person will have eaten hemp, it easily makes the person suffer pain somewhat in his or her head. However, whoever is sound in the head and has a full mind, it does not harm. Whoever is seriously ill, it also makes that person suffer pain somewhat in the stomach. However, whoever is only moderately ill, it does not cause pain when eaten. 
However, let whoever has a cold stomach cook hemp in water, squeeze out the water, wrap it in a cloth, and then place the hot cloth often over the stomach. This comforts the person and restores that place. Also, whoever has a vacant mind, if the person will have eaten hemp, it causes pain somewhat in the head; but it does not cause pain in a sound head and full brain. Also, the cloth made from the hemp heals ulcers and weeping wounds because the heat in the hemp has been tempered.” 

1277 "A Treasury of Health by Pope John XXI" The treasury of healthe conteynyng many profitable medycines gathered out of Hypocrates, Galen and Auycen, by one Petrus Hyspanus [and] translated into Englysh by Humfre Lloyde who hath added therunto the causes and sygnes of euery dysease, wyth the Aphorismes of Hypocrates, and Iacobus de Partybus redacted to a certayne order according to the membres of mans body, and a compendiouse table conteynyng the purginge and confortatyue medycynes, wyth the exposicyo[n] of certayne names [and] weyghtes in this boke contayned wyth an epystle of Diocles vnto kyng Antigonus. [English] Publication Date: 1553 Pope John XXI (era 1277)
Remedies - Agaynst a Carbuncle Capi. LIX 
. . . The ioyce of Hempe, afore the fyt taketh away the feuer. 
Remedies - Agaynst the scabe and french pokes cap. LXII 
. . . Take of red colewortes, fengreke Percely, sothernewod, tansey, strawbery leaues, and suet, brere leaues, plantayn leaues, hempe, redmadder smallage, cransebill, Alam, nuttes, before al thynges let them be sodde~ together in pure whyte wyne, & put therto a lytle hony, giue it vnto the pacient early & late, and anoynte ye wound wtout when he hath dronke of ye sayd potion, & lay theron a lefe of red colewortes & keape the same co~tynually ouer it, it openeth it and hath ben often prouyd. 

1561 A Most Excellent and Perfect Apothecary. A most excellent and perfecte homish apothecarye or homely physik booke, for all the grefes and diseases of the bodye. Translated out the Almaine speche into English by Ihon Hollybush 1561 By Hieronymus Brunschwig
To heale all maner disease of the eares.
If a man haue a sounding or piping in his eares / the same cometh somtyme of a hote slymy fylthynesse / or of a hote slymy moystnesse. He that is so diseased / ought to take pilles de iera picra / & then put oyle of Hempsede warme into his eares / mixt wt a litle vinegre / after yt let him leape vpon hys one legge / vpon that syde / where the disease is / than let hym bowe doune ye eare of that syde / if happely any moysture or fylth would issue out. --- pg 8 
Of suppuration or matteringe in the breste.
HE that hath a mattering in ye brest caused of cold . . . . A syrop of Violettes were good for him: but if ye haue not that syrop / tha~ make a milk of Hempsede / of water and hempsede / or els in stede therof take creme / and eat that / thesame cooleth and softeneth the harte wythoute hurte or daunger. After meate ought he to walke a litle / hauinge alwaye a warme cloth before hys mouth / that the ayer do not hurte him: for of the walkinge doth the corruption louse. -- pgs 14,15 
But when a man dyd cough / and were strayght aboute the brest and harte / and had heate therewyth / so that it were taken for an apostemacion.
Take~ a dishe full of Hempe sede / put thereto a litle warm water / braye it well / and strayne it wyth warme water / so that it become as a thyn parage. After that when it is colde / geue the patient therof to drinke so muche as he listeth wythout hurte: the same doth mollifye & coole very well / slaketh thyrste / and maketh large aboute the harte. And it is hood to seth that hempsede milke wyth butter / suppe there of wyth a spoune as hote as ye can suffre it / and in thre dayes ye shalbe whole without hurte or payne. It is good also for stich about the hart. --- pg 18 
Another drinke for the cough / that cooleth and mollifieth very well / and speciallye apostemes. 
Take Hempsede well beaten / mixte wyth water / and strayned through a cloth / so that it waxe euen as milk / drinke therof in the nyght and toward night when ye are thyrstye. . . . This is good also for horsenesse. --- pg 20 
Of all diseases of the bellye / and hys partes annexed. 
If any person / ether man or woman had a grepinge in hys guttes / specially the frettinge in the great guttes / and he or she were poore: let him take a litle waxe candle / and make therof a crosse vpright / vpon a pece of papir / the bignes of a groate / festened or clyued vpon the belly / and lightened / and a litle glasse set thereon: thesame draweth the payne to it. Or els take a bondel of rawe hempe threde / and seth it in water where are manye ashes / and laye it so warme vpon the belly. 
If ye haue no hempe threde / then do as I did when I was called by a woman / that was at the poynt of trauaylinge / and had so greate payne in her bellye / that the chylde lept vp and doune / so that all they that were aboute her / were astonnyed / nether durst anye man minister oughte to her: I bande both her legges aboue the kne hard and faste wyth a bande / and let it so alwaye an Aue Maria / and then losed it agayne a litle space / and band it agayne so oft / tyll the payne was holy taken awaye. -- pg 31

1569 A verye excellent and profitable booke conteining sixe hundred foure score and odde experienced medicines apperteyning unto phisick and surgerie, long tyme practysed of the expert and Reuerend Mayster Alexis, which he termeth the fourth and finall booke of his secretes ... Translated out of Italian into Englishe by Richard Androse. 1569 Girolamo Ruscelli
An excellent preseruatiue against the Pestilence and Dropsey.
Take one ounce of the iuyce of gréene nuttes, of the iuyce of Agrimony halfe an ounce, of the iuice of Rew thrée drams, of the iuice of Isope thrée ounces, of the iuice of Hempe foure ounces, meddle them togither, then take of the saide mixture halfe an ounce, of Mumia halfe a dramme, of Sugar Candy halfe an ounce, of Sugar Rosate one dramme, make a lectuarie, of the which, dissolue in good wine the quantitie of a Chestnut, or else in Buglosse water, or of the flowers of Marygolds, and many nights when you go to bed, vse to drinke therof. 
To stop the bloud of the Matrix, and of the vrine, and of wounds, and to heale the blacke pimples or wheales in the legs.
IN the midst of Maye distill through a Limbecke the leaues of an Oke: and of the water giue sixe ounces vnto the sicke to drinke, and he shall be healed of the sayde griefes, and if in the said water you wet the Tow of Hempe, or peeces of linnen, and wash the pimples or red legges inflamed, the medicine wil be effectuous. 
To kyll wormes in the eares.
Take of the séedes and gréene leaues of Hempe, & taking out the iuice, put thereof warme into the eares, and you shall sée the effect. Or else, take the Gawle of a Bull, of clarified Hony, of eche lyke quantitie, and boyling it in an earthen vessell, meddle it well togither, and reserue it in a Viall of Glasse, and when néede requireth, being a little warme, put thereof with wooll into the eare, first cleansing the eare from filthe. 

1580 Approved medicines and cordiall receiptes with the natures, qualities, and operations of sundry samples. Very commodious and expedient for all that are studious of such knowledge. 1580 Thomas Newton 
Canabis, Hempe. 
Hempe seede co~sumeth & dryeth somuch, that if it bee eaten in great quantity, it dryeth seede of Generation: it is hard to be disgested, and maketh ye head ache. --- pg 29

1596 A rich store-house or treasury for the diseased Wherein, are many approued medicines for diuers and sundry diseases, which haue been long hidden, and not come to light before this time. Now set foorth for the great benefit and comfort of the poorer sort of people that are not of abilitie to go to the physitions. 1596 A.T. practitioner in physicke 
Cap. 70. A good Medicine for the Raines of a mans backe.  Take Aquauitae, & put therein, a litle Hempe-seede finely beate~, & let it soke in the Aqua-vitae 7 or 8 daies together, then straine it, & let y^ Patient drinke it, & it will help him. Yf you ca~not get Aqua-vitae, the~ take good white wine, or else stale Ale, any of these will serue. 
Cap. 87. A very good Medicine for one that is hard bounde in the Belly.  Take a good quantitie of Hempe-seede, and seeth it in faire running Water, and when it is well sodden straine it thorough a fine cloth, and let the Patient drinke a good draught thereof when he goeth to bedde, and this will make him Laxatiue, 

1633 The Herball or Generall Historie of Plants. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirurgerie very much enlarged and amended by Thomas Iohnson citizen and apothecarye of London -1633 By John Gerard
CHAP. 238. OF HEMPE. 
1 Cannabis mas. Male or Steele Hempe. 
2 Cannabis foemina. Femeline, or Female Hempe. 
1 Hempe bringeth forth round stalkes, straight, hollow, fiue or six foot high, full of branches when it groweth wilde of it selfe; but when it is sowne in fields it hath very few or no branches at all. The leaues thereof be hard, tough, somewhat blacke, and if they be bruised they be of a ranke smell, made vp of diuers little leaues ioyned together, euery particular leafe whereof is narrow, long, sharpe pointed, and nicked in the edges: the seeds come forth from the bottomes of the wings and leaues, being round, somewhat hard, full of white substance. The roots haue many strings. 
2 There is another, being the female Hempe, yet barren and without seed, contrarie vnto the 709 nature of that sex; which is very like to the other being the male, and one must be gathered before the other be ripe, else it will wither away, and come to no good purpose. 
The Temperature and Vertues. 
The seed of Hempe, as Galen writeth in his bookes of the faculties of simple medicines, is hard of digestion, hurtfull to the stomacke and head, and containeth in it an ill iuyce: notwithstanding some do vse to eate the same [...], cum alijs tragematis, with other junkets. 
It consumeth winde, as the said Author saith in his booke of the faculties of medicines, and is so great a drier, as that it drieth vp the seed if too much be eaten of it. 
Dioscorides saith, That the iuyce of the herbe dropped into the eares asswageth the paine thereof proceeding (as I take it) of obstruction or stopping, as Galen addeth. 
The inner substance or pulpe of the seed pressed out in some kinde of liquor, is giuen to those that haue the yellow jaundice, when the disease first appeares, and oftentimes with good successe, if the disease come of obstruction without an ague; for it openeth the passage of the gall, and disperseth and concocteth the choler through the whole body. 
Matthiolus saith, that the seed giuen to hens causeth them to lay egges more plentifully. 

1651 The surgions directorie, for young practitioners, in anatomie, wounds, and cures, etc. shewing, the excellencie of divers secrets belonging to that noble art and mysterie. Very usefull in these times upon any sodaine accidents. And may well serve, as a noble exercise for gentle-women, and others; who desire science in medicine and surgery, for a generall good. Divided into X. parts. (Whose contents follow in the next page.)  T. Vicary, Esquire, chyrurgion to Hen 8. Edw. 6. Q. Mary. Q. Eliz. 1651 Thomas Vicary  
For a vehement Cough in young Children.

Take the Juyce of Parcely, powder of Commin, Womens milke, and mixe them together; then give the Child to drinke thereof, and afterward make this Oyntment following: Take the seed of Hempe or Flaxe, and Fennycrick, and seethe them in common water, then presse out with your hands the substance of the Hearbs, which you shall mingle with Butter, and so annoynt the Childes brest with it as hot as may be. - page 310 

1652 The Complete Herbal by Nicolas Culpeper (1616-1654)
HEMP.
THIS is so well known to every good housewife in the country, that I shall not need to write any description of it.  
Time. It is sown in the very end of March, or beginning of April, and is ripe in August or September. 

Government and virtues.] It is a plant of Saturn, and good for something else, you see, than to make halters only. The seed of Hemp consumes wind, and by too much use therof disperses it so much that it dries up the natural seed for procreation; yet, being boiled in milk and taken, helps such as have a hot dry cough. The Dutch make an emulsion out of the seed, and give it with good success to those that have the jaundice, especially in the beginning of the disease, if there be no ague accomplanying it, for it opens obstructions of the gall, and causes digestion of choler. The emulsion or decoction of the seed stays lasks and continual fluxes, eases the cholic, and allays the troublesome humours in the bowels, and stays bleeding at the mouth, nose, or other places, some of the leaves being fried with the blood of them that bleed, and so given them to eat. It is held very good to kill the worms in men or beasts; and the juice dropped into the ears kills worms in them; and draws forth earwigs, or other living creatures gotten into them. The decoction of the root allays inflammations of the head, or any other parts; the herb itself, or the distilled water thereof doth the like. The decoction of the root eases the pains of the gout, the hard humours of knots in the joints, the pains and shrinking of the sinews, and the pains of the hips. The fresh juice mixed with a little oil and butter, is good for any place that hath been burnt with fire, being thereto applied.--Pg. 91

1653 Pharmacopoeia Londinensis, or, The London dispensatory further adorned by the studies and collections of the Fellows, now living of the said collede ..by Nicolas Culpeper 1653 Royal College of Physicians of London.
SEEDS barely mentioned by the Collede are Sorrel: Agnus Castus: Marshmallows: Bishops weed true and common: Amomus: Dill: Angellica: Annis: Rose-seeds: Smallage: Columbines: Sparagus: Arach: Oates: Orrenges: Burdocks: Bazil: Barberries: Cotton: : or Kneebolly: Hemp -- pg 47 
Syrupus de Agno Casto. Pag. 50. In the L. Book. O R Syrup of Agnus Castus. 

The Colledg. Take of the seeds of Rue, and Hemp, of each half a drachm; of Endive, Lettice, Purslain, Guords, Melones, of each two drachms; of Fleawort half an ounce, of Agnus Castus four ounces, the Flowers of Water-Lillies, the Leaves of Mints, of each half a handful; Decoction of seeds of Lentils, and Coriander seeds, of each half an ounce, three pound of the Decoction, boyl them all over a gentle fire til two pound be consumed, ad to the residue being strained, two ounces Juyce of Lemmons, a pound and an half of white Sugar, make it into a Syrup according to art., pg 102 

1663 Tes iatrikes kartos, or, A treatise de morborum capitis essentiis & pronosticis adorned with above three hundred choice and rare observations ...1663  Robert Bayfield  
XC. De Ulceribus aurium, & vermibus.
ULcera aurium, Ulcers of the ears, arise from those things that either pour forth pus or matter, or else such as by their acrimony and tartness are of a corroding nature. 
. . . Vermes, worms, discover themselves by the corroding pain, restlesness, and other such like conjectural Symptoms. 
Necantur unguento ex axungia capi, & oleo coryli, cum gr. ii. Mercurii dulcis misto: This medicine following is highly commended. Rx Olei amygdal. amar. succi apii, centaurii minor. ana, {ounce} ii. aceti, {dram} ii. Bulliant parum, deinde adde myrrhae, aloes, ana, {scruple} i. M. Instillentur in aurem. Also the decoction of Hemp dropt into the ear is very effectual for the killing of Worms. Hitherto of the diseases of the ears: Next follow the symptomes. --- pages 134,135 

1679 Select observations on English bodies of eminent persons in desperate diseases first written in Latin by Mr. John Hall ... ; after Englished by James Cook ... ; to which is now added, an hundred like counsels and advices, for several honourable persons, 1679 By John Hall   
XXV. Vlcers of the Bladder.
For her by another eminent Physician. Take Mastick wood {ounce}iii. Sarsaparilla {ounce}vi. Liquoris {ounce}ii. after rightly prepared, boyl them in four gallons of Wort till a gallon be wasted; then strain out the Ingredients, and add a gallon of fresh Wort to it. After ready, use it for ordinary drink. Take of the four greater cold Seeds, each {ounce}ss. Seeds of Plantain, Water-lillies, and Hemp, each {dram}iii. boyl them in Barly-water lb vi to lb iii. to which add Plantain water lb ss. Penidies, sufficient quantity to sweeten it; and make an Emulsion. Take Troches of Gordon {ounce}ii. make a Pouder. Take of the Emulsion first in the morning, also an hour before supper, and at night going to bed, half a pint or little less; and in the morning and night-draughts, put in as much of the Pouder as will lie on a shilling. --- pg 228 
LXVI. Mother.
For the Right Honourable, the Lady Katherine Brook, for Hysteric Vapours, which did much afflict the Head and Neck, by Dr. Bates, and others. Sept. 12. 1666. was prescribed what follows: . . . . Take Flowers of red Roses, Elder, each M i. Betony, Rosemary, Cowslips, each M ss. Hemp seed {ounce}i. Juniper berries {ounce}ii. Persia Nuts 12. ther, and besprinkle them with Rose-vinegar, and boyl them in Cream lb iss. to the wasting of the Serum; after strain them, and add Oil of Amber {dram}iss. and make an Ointment. The part of the Head pained being shaved, was anointed twice a day, by which she found much advantage. -- pages 284, 285 

1664 Enchiridion medicum, or, A manual of physick being a compendium of the whole art, in three parts ... : wherein is briefly shewed 1. the names, 2. the derivation, 3. the causes, 4. the signs, 5. the prognosticks, and 6. a rational method of cure ... by Robert Johnson, Med. professor. 
CHAP. XI. Of the Yellow Jaundice.
Take of Rhubarb, the Roots of Madder, Smallage, the greater Celandine, of each one ounce; the Flowers of Broom one handfull; Hemp-seed two ounces; the Seeds of Anise, Parsley and Columbines, of each half an ounce; Saffron two drachms; white Tartar three drachms; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in White-wine, and Fountain water, of each three pints, till the third part be boiled away, then strain it, and add the best Manna, Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb, of each three ounces; mix it. 
Let the sick take four spoonfulls of this three times a day, till the viscous phlegm and Choler be sufficiently evacuated, and the natural colour of the body restored. --- pg 205 
. . . . Take the Roots of Scorzonera, Juniper, of each two ounces; Roots of Master-wort, Sassaphras, of each half an ounce; Berries of Juniper and Bays, of each one ounce and half; Seeds of Nettles, Hemp and Columbines of each one ounce; shavings of Harts-horn three drachms; the tops of Carduus, Scordium, Scabious, the lesser Centaury, of each one handfull; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in two quarts of Fountain-water, till half of it be boiled away; then strain it, and add Syrup of the juice of Carduus four ounces; Treacle-water two ounces; Salt of Tartar vitriolated two drachms; mix it, and give four spoonfulls every two or three hours. -- pg 206 
Soap of any sort, conduceth to the cure of the Jaundice, upon a twofold account, both by reason of its fixt lixivial Salt, and also by reason of its fatness or oil; for the Lixivial Salt doth correct and diminish the over volatileness and spirituousness of the vitiated Choler, and the oil doth blunt the sharpness of the volatile and spirituous Salt ruling in Choler. -- pg 207 
The following mixture is very effectual. 
Take of Hemp-seed two ounces; Soap two drachms; bruise the seed, and boil it in half a pint of new Milk, till half of it be consumed; then strain it, and add Syrup of Saffron half an ounce; tincture of Saffron two drachms; Laudanum opiatum four grains; mix it, and give half of it in the morning fasting, and the remainder at night, going to bed. 
CHAP. XXII. Of Extraordinary Pissing, &c.
Take the Roots of China, Sarseparilla, Comfry, Plantain, red Sanders, of each two ounces; Liquorish, red Roses, Hemp-seed, of each one ounce; Raisins of the Sun stoned four ounces; let them be cleansed, bruised and boiled in a Gallon of Fountain-water, till half of it be boiled away, then strain it, and keep it for use. -- pg 271 

1687 Thesaurus chirurgiae : the chirurgical and anatomical works of Paul Barbette ... composed according to the doctrine of the circulation of the blood, and other new inventions of the moderns : together with a treatise of the plague, illustrated with observations / translated out of Low-Dutch into English ... ; to which is added the surgeon's chest, furnished both with instruments and medicines ... and to make it more compleat, is adjoyned a treatise of diseases that for the most part attend camps and fleets ; written in High-Dutch by Raymundus Minderius. 1687 Paul Barbette 
Medicines in Burning.
Roots of White Lillies, Liquoras; Leaves of Bete, Coleworts, Hemp, Onions, Garlick, Henbane, Tabacco, Leeks, St. John's-wort; Flowers of Camomile, Melilot, Elders; Seeds of Quinces, of Line; Camphire, Myrrhe, Olibanum, Soot, 
CHAP. VII. Of all sorts of Fluxes; as also the Tenasmus, or vain endeavour of going to stool; and the Haemorrhoid or Piles, and Marisca's or sore Fundaments.
. . . Yet must you not put in any greasie Fat, or any Oyl of Olives, because they hinder healing; and all Oyl, except that of Linseed, Poppies, Hemp and Almonds, is very sharp; and you will find, that if any drop of Oyl of Olives should chance to fall into your Eye, no Juyce of Oranges or Limons is so strong as to exceed the acrimony of that Oyl. But of this Oyl more will be said in the next Chapter, to which I therefore refer you. If you would have your Clyster yet milder and more sanative, you may beat a yolk or two of new-laid Eggs, and mix them with it; though I have contented my self with the Ingredients before mention'd, and found great benefit thereby. Else you may in this case use for a Clyster the Cremor hordei, mixt with yolks of Eggs beaten in it; which is also very good to wash out the bowels. -- page 76 
CHAP. IX. Of the Chirurgical means of staunching blood, of Wound-balsoms and plaisters, of Wound-drinks, and remedies for Burnings. 
Item, take Cumphrey well cleansed, cut it small, add to it one or two of the Vulnerary Herbs, such as you may meet with in the field, as Pyrola or Winter-green, Yarrow, Plantain, Fluellin, Orpin, Consound, Sanicle, Bugle, &c. Boil this in Linseed-oyl and a little Wine, until the Wine is boiled away; and this being strained, put to it some raw Honey and one or two well beaten yolks of Eggs, (according to the quantity you make) and a little Turpentine, and so thrust it, with some Hemp or Flax dip in it, into the wound. 

1689 "The Philosophical Experiments and Observations of the late Eminent Dr. Robert Hooke, London, 1726." "An Account of the Plant, call'd Bangue, before the Royal Society, Dec. 18. 1689. 
It is a certain Plant which grows very common in India...and the Use thereof (tho' the Effects are very strange, and at first hearing, frightful enough) is very general and frequent...'Tis call'd, by the Moors, Gange...The Dose of it is about as much as may fill a common Tobacco-Pipe, the Leaves and Seeds being diced first, and pretty finely powdered. This Powder being chewed and swallowed, or washed down, by a small Cup of Water, doth, in a short Time, quite take away the Memory & Understanding; so that the Patient understands not, nor remembereth any Thing that he seeth, heareth, or doth, in that Extasie, but becomes, as it were, a mere Natural, being unable to speak a Word of Sense; yet is he very merry, and laughs, and sings, and speaks Words without any Coherence, not knowing what he saith or doth; yet is he not giddy, or drunk, but walks and dances and sheweth many odd Tricks; after a little Time he falls asleep, and sleepeth very soundly and quietly; and when he wakes, he finds himself mightily refresh'd, and exceeding hungry...The Plant is so like to Hemp, in all its Parts, both Seed, Leaves, Stalk, and Flower, that it may be said to be Indian Hemp...." 

1693 Medicinal experiments, or, 'A collection of choice and safe remedies' for the most part simple and easily prepared, useful in families, and very serviceable to country people -- 1693 By Robert Boyle.
VII. For the Jaundice.
Take two or three Ounces of Semen Cannabis (Hempseed) and boil them till the Seeds (some of them) begin to burst, and a little longer, in a sufficient quantity of New Milk, to make one good Draught; which the Patient is to take warm, renewing it, if need be, for some days together. -- pg 644. 

1694 The Complete Herbal of Physical Plants By John Pechey, Of the College of Physicians, London. 1694
Hemp, in Latin Cannabis Sativa. -- The Seed of it boyl'd in Milk, is good for a Cough: And five or six Ounces of it taken, cures the Jaundice: An Emulsion of the Seeds does the same. The Juice of the Herb, and of the green Seed, cures Pains and Obstructions of the Ears. 'Tis suppos'd by some, that it extinguishes Venery; but the Persians use it now-a-days, fried, and mix'd with Salt, to provoke the same. The Oyl of the Seeds, mix'd with a little Wax, is excellent to take out the Pain and Fire in Burns. Galen reckons, that the Virtues of Hemlock and Hemp are much the same. -- Pg 100

1694 The Anatomy of Human Bodies, comprehending the most modern discoveries and curiosities in that art to which is added a particular treatise of the small-pox & measles : together with several practical observations and experienced cures ... / written in Latin by Ijsbrand de Diemerbroeck ... ; translated from the last and most correct and full edition of the same, by William Salmon 1694
    ". . .Pains of the Hips and the Gout. . . Galen, Aetius, and Paulus prefer a Cataplasm of wild Cresses, which raises Blisters; and is accounted a peculiar Remedy for these Distempers. Schenkeus tells us of a Sciatic, who when all other Remedies failed, of his own Head took Skins of Hemp macerated with Ashes, and having boiled them in strong Vinegar, laid them to the place affected, as hot as he could endure them: This raised several Blisters upon the Skin, out of which flowed a great quantity of greenish yellow Water, by which means his Pain left him. Tagaultius celebrates this Emplaister of Galen and Avicen, then which he says there can be none more effectual, or that gives such present ease." -- Page 148 
    "XV. In the mean time, the Hair being shaved off, let the Head be fomented for an hour or two in the Morning, with this Fomentation luke-warm. 
Rx. Herbs, Betony, Vervain, Marjoram, Plantain an. M j. Lettice M iiij. Flowers of Roses, Melilot, Dill, Camomil, an. M j. Hemp and Coriander-seed an. {ounce} s. Common-water q. s. 
After Fomentation keep the Head well covered from the cold Air. But this Fomentation will not be proper before the Body be well purged, and some Blood be taken away." --- Page 174 
    "XV. Outwardly apply this Cataplasm. 
Rx. Root of white Lillies {dram}j. s. Leaves of Beets, Mallows, Mercury, Althea, Flowers of Camomil, an. M. j. Pale Roses M. s. Fengreek Meal {ounce}j. s. The inner Part of one Swallows Nest powdered, Water q. s. Boil them into the Form of a Poultis; to which add Oyl of Camomil {ounce}ij. Mix them for a Cataplasm. 
If there be any likelihood of Maturation, add thereto. 

Fat Figs no vij. or viij. Meal of the Root of Althea, Hemp-seed, Pulp of Cassia, Oyl of Lillies an. {ounce}j." --- Page 220 

And finally, Hemp for Beauty "for the use of the Ladies"

1779 The Toilet of Flora; or A Collection of the Most Simple and Approved Methods of Preparing - Baths, Essences, Pomatums, Powders, Perfumes, Sweet-Scented Waters, and Opiates for preferving and whitening the Teeth, Etc. Etc. With recepipts for cosmetics of every kind, that can smooth and brighten the skin, give force to beauty, and take off the appearance of OLD AGE and Decay. For the use of the Ladies. Improved from the French by M. Buchoz, M.D. 1779 
,,,Receipt to thicken the Hair, and make it grow again on a bald part. Take roots of a maiden vine, roots of Hemp, and Cores of soft Cabbages, of each two handfuls; dry and burn them; afterwards make a lye with the athes. Before you wash your head with this lye, the part should be rubbed well with honey, and this method perfitted in for three days together. 
A Fluid to Make The Hair Grow 
Take the tops of Hemp as soon as that plant begins to appear abouve ground, and infuse, them four and twenty hours in water. Dip the teeth of the comb in this fluid, and it will certainly quicken the growth of the hair. 

Also See
Date 1630 “In Michaelis Joannis Paschalis methodum curandi scholia. Addita in extremo operis disputatio medica, an cannabis, et aqua, in qua mollitur, possint aërem inficere. Ed. novissima “ Author Pereda, Petrus Paulus Publisher sumpt. J. Cardonii

Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years - Cannabis Comes to the New World

Hemp & Flax in Colonial America by Ben Swenson in The Colonial Williamsburg Journal Winter, 2015

Medical Cannabis A Short Graphical History The West